Mar Gregorios Orthodox Church Noida  

The Holy Qurbana
A Sacrament of Praises and Thanksgiving.

The word ‘Qurbana' is derived from the syriac word ‘Kurbono' or ‘Kareb', which means sacrifice. In Holy Qurbana we offer ourselves and the entire creation to God, through the sacrifice of Jesus Christ in Calvary . The Holy Qurbana is a new covenant with God. It is a Communion of Believers. By partaking in the Holy Communion, we become part of the body of Christ and through Him, have unity with the entire Congregation. The Holy Qurbana is the completion of all sacraments. Other Sacraments are not completed without celebrating the Holy Qurbana and that is why the Holy Qurbana is called the ‘Sacrament of Sacraments'.

Our Lord at the church in Capernaum just before the Holy Qurbana is instituted at the Sehiyon Mansion of St.Mark, foretold the importance, the purpose and the necessity of it sufficiently early. (John 6:26-59).
It has five purposes:

1. For the remission of sins (Math.26:28)
2. For everlasting life (John 6:54)
3. For resurrection (John 5:28-29)
4. For God to remain in us (John 6:56)

The basis of Holy Qurbana is the service done with bread and wine by our Lord before his disciples on the eve of the crucifixion. The chief celebrant of the service was Lord himself. Later the bishops and priests became the celebrants. In olden days all people assembled together every day at any time. (Acts 2:46). There after the practice was turned to the morning on the first day of the week. (Acts 20:7). They usually conducted the worship by reading and meditating Bible portions suitable for the day and by singing songs bringing to mind the songs of the angels of heaven and by declaring that they do remember the death of Christ on the cross and the resurrection thereupon and their eagerness to look forward to the last Second Coming. The worship got the different form and shape by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, strictly, following the foot steps of the worship of angels of heaven as described in the sixth chapter of Isaiah and from the intuition received from the various parts of the Book of Revelation. Hence the present form achieved.

  General information

Holy Qurbana is worship and sacrament
The Holy Qurbana is a systematic form of public worship, most beautiful and exhilarating. It is also an important sacrament. Above all it is the perfector of sacraments. It was instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ himself. He specially entrusted his disciples. It is food and salvation for our souls. We are connected to him by his body and blood of Messiah through this sacrament. Therefore it is magnificent and it excels everything and is truly attractive. Melchizedek, the chief priest of God (who lived at the time of Abraham) made offering in bread and wine as foreshadowing this sacrament. Gen:14:18 “Then Melchizedek King of Salem brought out bread and wine. He was priest of God Most High”. During the Old Testament days it is celebrated as sacrifice of innocent lambs as a wondrous example. At the fullness of time it was fulfilled in the Holy body of the lamb of God, Jesus Christ. It is being commemorated by the Church through this sacrament till the end of the world. This sacred sacrament is full of several great deep mysteries.

Visible and invisible acts
Our Lord once for all died on the cross for us. It will not be repeated. The Holy Qurbana, the remembrance of which kindles our faith, lead us to new spiritual experience. Eventhough our Lord is invisible now he is sitting on the right hand of the Father in heaven and offers the living sacrifice to God, the creator of all on behalf of us all in calm and peace. We are made part and parcel of this sacrifice. The Lord himself as the chief celebrant is celebrating this sacred act which is mercy, peace, sacrifice and thanks giving. In the Holy Qurbana the celebrant is the priest but he really represent the Lord. Now we can understand that the Holy Qurbana is the union of the visible and the invisible, wonderfully and excellently made united.

It is Holy Sacrifice itself
The Holy Qurbana is the remembrance of the Holy Sacrifice done on Calvery once for all. Rom:12:1 “Living Sacrifices: Therefore, I urge you, brothers, in view of God's mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God-this is your spiritual act of worship”. The Holy Qurbana is actually a spiritual sacrifice. Like Abraham who prepared to offer his son Issac as sacrifice we also should offer ourselves as sacrifice for the remission of our sins. The only thing is that in the Holy Qurbana we ourselves are the animals of sacrifice.

It is service of thanks giving
The Holy Qurbana is a sacrament through which we express our gratitude and thanks to God who protect us in wondrous ways. When we pray like the priest “ Oh God make us worthy to offer you this service of Thanks giving as sweet fragrance of incense” then we understand the remarkable magnitude of this service.

It is a performance full of meaning
There is great meaning in all things done in Holy Qurbana. It enables to touch the heart of man. The heard melodies in Holy Qurbana are sweet and make us happy. The thoughtful prayers reveal the eternal truths. Every act done has deep meaning. There is intention for all the colours seen, there is aim for every step made. There is significance for every clothes worn. Every word uttered depicts mysterious action the heart and reminds us of the experiences of heaven. All the materials used in this, stands for one or other thing and makes us thoughtful , whereby five senses of man made in full action. Sight gives the eyes delight, songs give ears pleasantness. The incense of fragrance give the nose sweetness. The bread and wine give the tongue tasteness and the skin gives occasion to touch. Body, mind and heart are made in full action. In short, the Holy Qurbana is an act full of meaning. We are made to see the Holy Sacrifice of our Lord with body, mind and soul and as thanks giving enables us to submit ourselves as the Passover Lamb of the New Testament, by eating the manna of the New Testament, renew the covenant of the New Testament with the blood of him.

  Peculiarities of Holy Qurbana

A worship in complete form:
The five essential parts of worship namely praise, thanksgiving, repentance, supplication and dedication are fully assimilated in the Holy Qurbana.
All the events of the incarnation are remembered in order:
All the events of the Lord from birth, baptism, public preaching, crucifixion, death, resurrection, ascension, second coming are visualized as in a drama evoking our imagination magnificently.
It depicts the return of the prodigal (lost) son:
Luke 15:11-32. The priest wearing black robe and chanting psalm 51, entering the Holy sanctuary (Madbaha) for thooyobo (the preparation ceremony in secret) can be considered as the return of prodigal son. The kissing of the corners of altar is considered as the embrace of the prodigal son with his father. The wearing of the priestly dress after washing hands by the priest is considered as equal to the prodigal son bathed and dressed up with best robes. So forth the feast with the fattened calf is the Holy Qurbana.
It embodies the vision of Isaiah:
Isaiah: 6:1-8. Isaiah saw a vision in sorrow when he saw the glory of God and the unclean conditions of man. This signifies the Holy Qurbana. Truly this vision gave the inspiration to the ancient fathers to give shape to the Holy Qurbana. “ I saw the Lord seated on the throne, high and exalted (the altar). Around stood the seraphs. They made to touch the mouth with the live coal from the altar of sacrifice to take away guilt. In the end asks who will go for us”. In the Qurbana we all hear this and see this. The church teaches us to hear the voice of God in the Qurbana calling us for the work of God.
Heavenly Worship:
The Holy Sanctuary (Madbaha) is the replica of the heaven Eph: 2:6. The priest represents the Lord. Like wise the sectons or deacons represent the angels, candles represent the saints. Another aspect of the heavenly worship is the fragrance of incense. Rev: 8:3,4.” Another angel who had golden censer, came and stood at the altar. He was given much incense to offer, with the prayers of all the saints, on the golden altar before the throne. The smoke of the incense, together with the prayers of the saints, went up before God from the angel's hand”. Tradition says that the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, usually prayed at the tomb of our Lord with fragrance of incense. Thereupon the custom of incense came to the church. Really it was the work of Holy Spirit. Another feature of heavenly worship is the use of “Halleluyya” the song of praise of the angels of heaven. In the Holy Qurbana there are four occasions, which depicts the opening of the heaven. Because of all these the Holy Qurbana is considered as a heavenly worship.

The priest acts as representative of God and people:
In the Holy Qurbana the chief celebrant is Jesus Christ. He himself is offering the sacrifice. (1Cor:15:22, Eph 4:15, 5:23) Most of the prayers are addressed to the Father. The reason is that the Lord the Son is celebrating the sacrifice. The priest acts in five different ways. (1) As the representative of God, he gives benediction and remission of sins. (2) Prays for the people. (3) Representing the people and prays by saying ‘We'. In the New Testament the sons of the church are royal priesthood. All are given priesthood revoking the Levi tribe tradition. The curtain of the temple was torn into two from top to bottom (Mathew 27:51) was a sign of this. Even in the Levi tribe all do not serve in the Holy of Holy places as high priests. Likewise all people do not do holy services. Only those who are called from them. (4) As leader of the people he starts all prayers. (5) Also prays as an individual. The saying of the priest “Always for me” is a sign.

Active participation of the people:
The celebrant prays aloud when he celebrates. By hearing that, people are not expected to stand with crossed hands like pillars, but also are expected to respond to the priest in high sound. Like David (Ps. 150:3-5), we have to praise with the sounding of the trumpet, praise him with tambourine (drum) and dancing, praise him with the strings and flute, praise him with the clash of cymbals, praise him with resounding cymbals. It is not always proper to stand in silence. We should be silent for devotion only when the priest is saying the prayers. Though we can say the prayers and sing songs by heart, the church insists to say and sing by looking into book. It is because the mind will get concentration, when we sing songs and say prayers loudly. The mind will be filled with heavenly happiness. Thus we participate fully with the priest in the service.

The living, the dead, the heavenly beings assembled together:
The Holy Qurbana is a solemn and awful scene where the earth and heaven are made to join. When the living worship, the departed unseen souls and the angels of heaven partake with them. Though we cannot see or hear their roaring sounds of praise of God, it is but blessed experience to believe it. Then we will understand the saying (Ps 133:1) “How good and pleasant it is when brothers live together in unity”

A worship to attend with good preparation:
We ought to attend Holy Qurbana, which is full of solemn and awful divine mysteries, only with good preparation. (1) We have to make peace with brothers. (Mathew 5: 23-24) “Therefore, if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother has something against, leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to your brother; then come and offer your gift”. (2) We should have repentance (Rom: 8:26) in the same way, the spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express”. (3) There should be purity. (1 Sam :21:4) “ But the priest answered David, “ I don't have any ordinary bread on hand, however, there is some consecrated bread here – provided the men have kept themselves from women”. (4) Should fast. (1. Sam: 9:13) “As soon as you enter the town, you will find him before he goes up to the high place to eat. The people will not begin eating until he comes, because he must bless the sacrifice, afterward, those who are invited will eat. Go up now; you should find him about this time”. (5) To eat the holy body only with due preparation. If one eats in an unworthy manner, he will have judgement. 1.Cor:11:29 “For any one who eats and drinks with out recognizing the body of the Lord eats and drinks judgement on himself”.

Thus the Holy Qurbana is a worship of specialities, only to attend with due preparation.

Symbolic yet contemplative:
The Holy Qurbana is symbolic all throughout. Every symbol (outward action) gives us food for thought. Through the visible way we get invisible grace of God. When we say that he blessed the children by placing his hands over the head, the placing of hands is a visible action, a symbol. But the grace obtained is invisible. Like wise in Holy Qurbana there are visible actions which have invisible results. All the actions give us occasion for devotion.

Individulity develops:
All the different parts of the individuality, the body, the mind and the heart in one way or other awaken and made to action. The five senses become active by standing, sitting, and making the sign of the cross, singing, smelling and tasting. We get deep spiritual experiences by the great involvement of all the different aspects of the individuality made in full action in the great and magnificent venture of prayer. Along with this, individuality also develops.
  Fundamental Faith of Holy Qurbana

Real Presence
There is real presence of the Lord in the bread and wine. It is not body and blood in real nature. But it is body and blood by grace. As the bread and wine becomes His body and blood by the word of the Lord, in the same way it happens by the word of priest who is the representative of the Lord. As the Lord takes his body in St. Mary when the angel conveyed the message, the presence of the Lord is happening in the bread and wine. Though the second person in the Trinity is seen as man, he was perfect man and perfect God at the same time. In the same way the bread and wine without any external sign imbibes divinity internally, God resides in it with out making any change in the materials. The substance under goes no change in sight or taste. As in the heated iron, heat remains in iron with out any change in the substance, like wise the bread and wine become body and blood of the Lord by the presence of the Lord without any change in the substance. How this occurs, it is beyond the imbibing power of human beings, but it occurs by the unseen mighty power of the Almighty. It is the “Great Mystery”. Those who receive with faith and reverence, have remission of sin and everlasting life.We do not accept any dogmas against this faith-like the transubstantiation theory or the conception as mere sign or mere materials or mere remembrance.

The leavened bread made with wheat flour

The bread used in Holy Qurbana is to be prepared only with leavened wheat flour. It is said in the Old Testament that the bread used in the pass over was unleavened bread. But the bread, which our Lord divided among the disciples at the mansion of Sehion , was leavened bread. In Syriac the name for leavened bread is “Lahamo” and for unleavened bread to remove “Patheera”. In the Bible when this portion is described “Lahamo” is clearly used and hence it is evident that the Lord used leavened bread to remove the old and to install the new. Mathew :26:26 “ While they were eating, Jesus took bread (Lahamo) and gave thanks and broke it”. Mark 14:22 “While they were eating, Jesus took bread (Lahamo) gave thanks and broke it”. Luke:22:19 “And he took bread (Lahamo) gave thanks and broke it and gave it to them”. Luke 22:20 “In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you”. It means that the old is removed. The leaven represents life. It shows that there is life where Christ is. Amos 4:5 “Burn leavened bread as a thank offering”. We see the fulfillment of this prophecy in the Holy Qurbana.

It should be received after mixing together

The bread and the wine are to be received after mixing them together. In Luke 22:17 when it is said to take and eat and drink, it is not done. How they did it, it is explained in John 13:26. “It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish”. From this saying it is quite clear that the Lord took the bread after mixing it with the wine, gave it to eat. At the fraction and commixture ceremony, the bread and wine are mixed together. Thereafter it should not be given separately. In certain churches the practice is to give them separately. But we do not accept that practice.

The bread broken to pieces and then to eat

It is the sign of Old Testament sacrifice to cut the object of sacrifice into pieces. Lord broke the bread and gave it piece by piece. Mathew 26:26 Here it is clearly stated that he took bread, gave thanks and broke it and gave it to his disciples. In the same way in Luke 22:19 it is said that the bread is broken or divided into pieces and gave it. We read that the sacred apostles assembled together to break the bread. Even the name given to that service was ‘the service of breaking of the bread'. 1cor:10:16 “Is not the bread hat we break a participation in the Body of Christ”? From this we have to understand that the bread is to be eaten by breaking into pieces. Certain churches do not follow this. That we do not accept.

We should be recipients of the bread blessed by the priest

The priest eats the bread blessed and broken into pieces and he should give part of that bread to others. 1Cor :10:17 ”Because there is one Loaf, we, who are many, are one body, for we all partake of the one Loaf”. Certain churches do not give to the laity the bread blessed by the priest, also do not give it divided and in piece. We do not consider it as proper.

  Directives of Holy Qurbana

How to take part in the Holy Qurbana?
We have to take part in the Holy Qurbana with due discipline, standing well, in awe and sober minds, in comeliness and in holiness, in love and true faith especially in the fear of God. At the time of prayer and when attending Holy Qurbana our hands are to be stretched straight down wards or holding the hands across the breast or with hands raised as we do when Lord's prayer is recited. The traditional Indian greeting with palms folded in reverence and awe is also good. But it is not proper to put down hands carelessly or turning to the backside in a haphazard manner.

In answer to the priest

All participants have to say in reply with loud voice and clear tone.
Book to be used.
Though we know by heart, still it is good to use the Qurbanakram as far as possible and say or sing by looking into it.
The significance of the sign of the cross

We make the sign of the cross by touching the forehead first, then to chest to remember that our Lord came down from heaven to earth for our salvation and then moving from left shoulder to the right shoulder to remember that we children of the left by our sins are turned to the children of the right by the death of our Saviour on the cross. We make the sign with the thumb and the first two fingers of the right hand joined together. We should bow our body and to make the sign whenever we say ” Crucified for us” and also at the time of remembrance of the death of our Lord in the Nicene Creed.
When we pray.
We should stand still facing the east with folded hands across the breast subduing distracting thoughts.
Why we face the east when we pray?
It is because our church believes that the Second Coming of our Lord will be from the East. St. Mathew: 24:27 “ for as lighting that comes from the east is visible even in the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man”.
Where ever the name of the Trinity is spoken.
It is but proper to make the sign of the cross.
How to make the sign of the cross?
With respect, bowing one's head.
When "Kauma" is spoken.
Both hands to be opened and raised upwards.
When the Lord's prayer is recited.
Eyes have to be raised up to the heaven.
Sunday evening.
Means the evening on the eve of Saturday
Church calendar.
Starts from the Koodosh Etho Sunday (Purification of the church). The Sunday between October 30 and November 5 is Koodos Etho. One Calendar year is divided into six periods and the worship is arranged. Which are they?
• From Koodos Etho Sunday to Yeldo
• From Yeldo (Birth) to Kothine
• From Kothine (water made into wine) Sunday to Kymtha
• From Kymtha (Resurrection) Sunday to Pentecost
• From Pentecost to Sleeba
• From Sleeba (feast of the Cross) to Koodos Etho.
Maranaya (that relates to the Lord) Festivals.
To celebrate as Sunday.
In the Great Lent.
Holy Qurbana is celebrated only on Saturday and Sunday except on Maranaya festivals. Remembrance of the departed souls is also done only on those days. It is because all the other days are observed as fasting days. But Holy Qurbana is celebrated on Vachanippu perunal (March 25 th )irrespective of the above. (Vachanippu perunal is the day of festival on which message of the birth of Christ was given to St. Mary by Gabriel)
When to receive the Holy Communion?
St. Basil the Great has said that Holy Communion is to be received once in every fortieth days. It may be because as some physicians say, the food we take, have its effect on the body till the 40th day. This may be one of the reasons for this suggestion. It is but proper to receive Holy Communion as often as possible, say at all services we attend.
In comeliness to attend the Holy Service
As far as possible wear white dress properly washed. Make sure that the body is cleansed after bathing. (It is always better to avoid dress with deep colors)
Without eating food.
We have to attend the Holy Qurbana without taking food. That is our tradition.

  Church & equipments

The Church or the House of God
In olden days the Holy Qurbana was celebrated in houses and caves. But later on according to Jewish tradition separate places was set apart as church. There are four parts for it.
(1) Holy Sanctuary (Madbaha) (Holy of Holies)
(2) Place inside the rails (Azhikakam) (Holy place)
(3) Nave (Hykala) (Main Hall for Congregation)
(4) Portico (Northex) (Poomukham) (Place for gentiles)
Portico is not seen in all churches. In the Jewish churches the Holy of Holy place is at the extreme west where as the Madbaha which is equivalent to the Holy of Holy places is on the extreme east. There is so much difference.

The Holy Sanctuary (Madbaha-which means the place of Sacrifice)
Here there is an altar, a table of sacrifice. In the Madbaha there is censer, a cross instead of the budded staff of Aaron, Paten and Chalice in the place of the life giving Manna and the vessels of sacrifice, burning candles to lighten the vessels of sacrifice as the glorious Ark like cherubims overshadowing the covenant box. (heb: 9:4- 5).The Madbaha is depicted as equivalent to Golgatha. It is compared as the Mount of Sinai where God descended down and visited. It is also compared to paradise where there is tree of life and unending songs of the sacred congregation. Above all it is held as heaven itself.
The Veil (Altar Curtain)
The Veil, which separates the Madbaha and the Hykala, signifies the sky, which separates the Heaven and Earth.
a. Altar
The meaning of the word is ‘throne'. There are also such names as ‘Table of life, tomb of the Lord. The step (Darga) infront of the altar signifies the mansion of Sehion where Old Testament gave way to New Testament.
b. Thablitho (the portable altar)
This is a piece of wooden slab upon which the paten and the Chalice are placed. It can also be made of marble slab. Wood is better. If it is wood, it should be made of tree which contains a kind of milky or oily substance. Jack wood slab is used ordinarily. Teak and Rose wood etc. Are not used. It will have only 18 inches long and 9 inches broad. Though there is no altar, the Holy Qurbana can be celebrated any where with this slab. Without this, the Qurbana cannot be celebrated. It is depicted as the tree of life in the Paradise of Eden. This is to be consecrated only at the time of Consecration of a church. At any time it cannot be consecrated. On this slab silk covering in red, green and white in colors are spread one above the other, upon which the Paten and the Chalice are placed. The red colour represents the Omnipresence of God on all universe, Green the world and white the church. Only one Qurbana can be celebrated on one tablitho, on the same day.
c. The Cross
The Cross installed in the middle and top most part, signifies the budded staff of Aaron. It reminds that we are protected from Satan in a wondrous way.
d. Candles
Candles are lighted on the altar (Mathew: 5:14) Seven based on the golden lamb of Jerusalem Temple or 12 representing the apostles. It reminds us the saying of our Lord “ I am the light of the world”. John 1:8, 8:12. The apostles lighted so many lambs when they were meeting to break bread. Acts 20:8. It reminds us that like these candlesticks our souls should also be lighted brightly by Holy Spirit.
e. Chithola (The covering of the Altar)
It is a beautiful covering decorating the altar. It represents the winding sheet in which the body of our Lord was wrapped at the time of burial.
f. Chalice (Kasa)
It is a cup of sacrifice, to keep wine, with a stand to handle.
g. Paten (Peelasa)
A flat plate of sacrifice to keep the bread
h. Spoon (Tharvodo)
It is used to take wine to pour over the bread.
i. Star (Astaric - Kavukubo)
This is a support in the sign of cross over the Paten so that the covering over it may not touch the holy body. It represents the star, which appeared over the manger.
k. Viri Kottam (Group of coverings)
l. Viri - A piece of satin cloth with pieces of different colors stitched together of size 2 ½ feet or 3 ½ feet long and wide to cover the Tablitho.
m. Shooshepo (Sosaffa) (Air) It is a white cloth to cover both the Chalice and Paten. It signifies the swaddling clothes of Baby Jesus in the manger (Luke : 2:7). The seamless clothes (garment with out stitches) of our Lord (John 19:23). It also signifies the light called “Shekina” over the mercy seat or covenant box. (Numbers 9:15) More over it is considered as the bright cloud that overshadowed at the time of transfiguration. (Mathew 7:15). We can think that the glorious veil covering the ministry of the spirit, in the Old Testament which is not removed for long is removed in Christ. 2 cor: 3: 7-18). When it is covered by the Shoosepo, one corner is folded up. This signifies the transformation of the Old Testament to New Testament .
n.  Mkablono(Receptacle)
This is a piece of cloth to cover the Chalice and Paten separately when they are not covered together with Shooshepo.
o. Gmurtho (Small Cushion)
It is used for placing the spoon. It is also used to wipe the lips of children after communion. It is equivalent to the tongs with which the Seraphims took the live coal. (Isa: 6:6)  
p. Towel

It is used to wipe the priest's fingers which touched the Holy articles. Also it is used to wipe the vessels of sacrifice.

q. Gospel Stand (Lectern)
It is decorative table to place the Holy Bible. It depicts the sermon of mount of our Lord. This also depicts as the second altar in the Madbaha.
r. The Censer (Doopakutti)
This vessel which brings forth sweet smell of incense represents the church. It makes us to remember the dedication of oneself to God. (Eph: 5:2) “ He gave himself up for us as a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God”. It also makes the worship heavenly. Rev 8:3-4 “ Another angel who had a golden censer came and stood at the altar. He was given much incense to offer, with prayers of all the saints, on the golden altar before the throne. The smoke of the incense, together with the prayers of the saints went up before God from the angels hand”. The lower cup of the censor represents the earth and the upper cup the heaven. The chain represents the Holy Trinity. Two chains represent the Human and Godly nature of the Son .One for the Father and the other for the Holy Spirit. The 12 bells represent the 12 apostles. The 72 links stands for 72 evangelists. The charcoal represents sinners. Fire represents the Holy Spirit and the Frank-incense good deeds. The incense shows the grace of the Holy Trinity. As the smoke goes up to the high so also our prayers should go high (Psalm 141:2). The censer in a silent language exhorts us to please others by filled up with the glorifying fire of the Holy Spirit. (Hebrew 12 :29)
s. Marvahso
At certain time when worship is going on the altar, two persons standing on both sides make jingling and pleasing sound by shaking a round object on the top of a long stick. It represents the angels and the fluttering of their wings.
t. Msaknsabino
It is a beautifully decorated box round in shape with rays alround to preserve the Holy Qurbana for days and days. This is not seen in all churches. This signifies that Christ resides with us always (Mathew 28:20)
u. Hand bell
The deacons use this to proclaim the important occasions. Occasions (1) When informing the Holy birth at the start of the Holy Qurbana. (2) When we say “ Oh thou who was crucified for us” three times. (3) At the time of reading of the Gospel. (4) Blessing of the Censer. (5) Celebration of the shooshepo. (6) Waving the hands over the Qurbana. (7) Blesses the bread. (8) Again when the priest raises his hands. (9) Waves hand over the Paten and Chalice . (10) In the midst of the song “Hearken, gracious Lord”. (11) Elevation of Paten and Chalice. (12) Proceeds towards the west with Paten and Chalice.
v. Big bell
It is used to inform the time of the worship and to make us to remember the important occasions in between the worship. This bell is fixed at the top of the church. We should make the sign of the cross when we hear the sound of the bell considering it as the bugle sound of salvation. The sound of the bell attracts the believers to the church like the bugle sound of the Shepherd which attracts all the scattered sheep together or like the sound of the mother bird which attracts the young ones to the protection under her wings. The wise, when he hears the sound hasten to the Holy place with enthusiasm.Occasions to use:- (1) Before the start of the worship the first bell rings 33 times, in remembrance of the age of our Lord. (2) The Second bell informs that the worship will start soon. (3) When the Qurbana starts publicly. (4) At the elevation of the Paten and Chalice. (5) When proceeds towards the west with the Paten and the Chalice.

In the celebration of Holy Qurbana the priest wears 8 and the Bishop wears 12 pieces of vestments.
1. The white robe denotes original purity
2. The black robe (the Kootheeno) (Black cassock) denotes the sinful nature.
3. The surplice (the white robe) denotes that the sins are cleansed and made white and bright by the blood of Christ and it reminds us to worship the Lord in holiness.
4. The stole (Hamniya) the two ends of the Oororo which the deacons wore over the shoulders are stitched together and put over the neck to hang down to the front. It is the gird of strength to     defend the attack of enemies. (Psalm 18: 39-40) and the breast plate of righteousness (Ephe: 6:14) It is also said to be the wings of angels and the breast plate of Aaron
5. The Girdle (the belt) It is the belt or sword upon the thigh to fight against Satan. (Psalm 45:3) Job 38:3 It is the belt of truth buckled around his waist. (Eph 6:14)
6. The sleeves (The zindo) wears on both hands. It denotes the hands are extended for righteousness and good works (Psalm 18:34-35)
7. The Chasuble or cope (Kappa) (Phino) It is the ecclesiastical outer vestment wore over all other garments. The priests are clothed with righteousness. (Psalm 132:9-10) It is the robe of glory and     salvation. It denotes the precious robe of Aaron the robe of angels of heaven, the robe of the Lord, the mantle of Elijah.
8. The Shoes It is the fitted feet of the gospel of peace (Eph : 6:15) (Isai 52:7) (2 cor : 10:5)

The Bishop's special additional vestments
9. Sheelamudi It denotes that the blessings of the Holy spirit is the Bishop
10.Pallium (Patraseen) A garment wears over the cope or Kappa to the front and to the back. It denotes that he is the watcher of sacrament and faith. (Exodus 28:6-12). Also it declares that he is      the ruler of the church. Further it denotes the protection in the shadow of the Tabernacle. (Psalm 27:5)
11. The crosier (The pastoral staff) This is the mighty scepter extended from Zion by the Lord (Psalm 110:2) It makes evident that he has the authority like the shepherd,. This is equivalent to the       rod of Moses and Aaron.
12. The cross (Sleeba) It reveals the perfection of the sacrament in the Holy Church (Psalm 34:5) “Those who look to him are radiant, their faces are never covered with shame”. Like this those       who look at the cross will be strengthened, enemies pushed back, foes trampled upon (Psalm 44:5)